Climbing is going up, or, depending on context, also down.
It may refer to aircraft, a land vehicle, and humans and
other animals. On land, in particular it refers to steep
climbs, e.g. on a hill, mountain or stairs, in a pole
or tree, etc. This article covers climbing without a vehicle.
Types of climbing By terrain:
- Rock climbing is climbing on steep rocky terrain.
- Mountaineering is climbing on mountains.
- Ice climbing is climbing on frozen water features.
- Mixed climbing is climbing on both frozen water features,
as in ice climbing, as well as rocky terrain.
- Bouldering is solo climbing on boulders.
- Stack climbing is climbing sea stacks: near vertical
columns of rock in the sea, near coasts.
- Buildering (pun on bouldering) is climbing on the outside
- Indoor climbing is climbing on artificial climbing walls.
- Recreational tree climbing is climbing on trees.
- Professional tree climbing is climbing on trees for
the purpose of hardware installation, pruning, or removal.
By method of ascent:
In aid climbing, all means of ascent are used, from pulling
on gear to climbing rope ladders attached to drilled bolts.
In free climbing, climbers use only their hands, feet
and other body parts to make progress. Ropes and other
gear are only used for protection.
By type of protection:
In traditional climbing (commonly referred to as "trad
climbing") the leader places all protection. The climbing
system is used to protect the climber against the consequences
of a fall.
Sport climbing is climbing on routes that are protected
mostly or entirely by bolts drilled into the rock. Top-rope
climbing uses a rope attached to an anchor at the top.
Solo climbing is climbing without a partner. It can be
done with a rope for protection ("roped solo") or without
any form of protection at all ("free-soloing"). Deep-water
soloing relies on water at the base of the climb to protect
Bouldering relies on a partner (a "spotter"), a bouldering
mat, or shortness of falling distance to avoid injury.