Rock Climbing

Climbing is going up, or, depending on context, also down. It may refer to aircraft, a land vehicle, and humans and other animals. On land, in particular it refers to steep climbs, e.g. on a hill, mountain or stairs, in a pole or tree, etc. This article covers climbing without a vehicle.

Types of climbing By terrain:

- Rock climbing is climbing on steep rocky terrain.
- Mountaineering is climbing on mountains.
- Ice climbing is climbing on frozen water features.
- Mixed climbing is climbing on both frozen water features, as in ice climbing, as well as rocky terrain.
- Bouldering is solo climbing on boulders.
- Stack climbing is climbing sea stacks: near vertical columns of rock in the sea, near coasts.
- Buildering (pun on bouldering) is climbing on the outside of buildings.
- Indoor climbing is climbing on artificial climbing walls.
- Recreational tree climbing is climbing on trees.
- Professional tree climbing is climbing on trees for the purpose of hardware installation, pruning, or removal.

By method of ascent:

In aid climbing, all means of ascent are used, from pulling on gear to climbing rope ladders attached to drilled bolts. In free climbing, climbers use only their hands, feet and other body parts to make progress. Ropes and other gear are only used for protection.

By type of protection:

In traditional climbing (commonly referred to as "trad climbing") the leader places all protection. The climbing system is used to protect the climber against the consequences of a fall.

Sport climbing is climbing on routes that are protected mostly or entirely by bolts drilled into the rock. Top-rope climbing uses a rope attached to an anchor at the top.

Solo climbing is climbing without a partner. It can be done with a rope for protection ("roped solo") or without any form of protection at all ("free-soloing"). Deep-water soloing relies on water at the base of the climb to protect against injury.

Bouldering relies on a partner (a "spotter"), a bouldering mat, or shortness of falling distance to avoid injury.

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